Thursday, July 31, 2014

Medical Department #47 - Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

I'm pleased to provide below the text from my most recent "Medical Department" column in Civil War News.

“Medical Department”
August 2014
By Jim Schmidt
“Our Bodies, Ourselves”

"Slavery is terrible for men; but it is far more terrible for women. Superadded to the burden common to all, they have wrongs, and sufferings, and mortifications peculiarly their own." - Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861)

Anti-Slavery Bugle - Lisbon, OH - November 03, 1860

Recently, I read Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, first published in 1861. I was inspired to read it for two reasons: first, it seemed a good companion to last year’s award-winning film, Twelve Years a Slave (based on the 1853 narrative by Solomon Northup); second, on account of reading a recent excellent article, “"[No] Doctor but My Master": Health Reform and Antislavery Rhetoric in Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl” (J Med Humanit, Mar 2014), by Sarah L. Berry, Ph.D.

“Northrup’s narrative is a classic among the thousands of narratives told or written by enslaved men,” Dr. Berry wrote me after kindly agreeing to an interview, adding that, “Jacobs’s narrative is absolutely unique in being the only narrative written by a formerly enslaved woman before the Civil War and in directly addressing the sexual exploitation and disrupted parenting of enslaved women. Jacobs was brave to disclose the full extent of her experience to a middle-class female readership.”

Dr. Berry makes several important points that tie together the study of slavery and medicine that should be of interest to readers of this column: 1) she emphasizes Jacobs’s experience about the particular suffering of female slaves, especially in terms of sexual exploitation; 2) she demonstrates the power wielded by slaveholding physicians over the bodies and medical treatment of their female slaves (and of free white females); 3) she notes how Jacobs criticized the “heroic” medicine of the early-1800s; and 4) she explains how Incidents was more than an abolitionist track, but also part of the broader reform literature of the era, including medical reform.

Dr. Berry has a most interesting and diverse academic background – “I have a BS in Biology and a PhD in English, with experience in lab work and clinical research and, post-PhD, expertise in the field of Health Humanities,” she told me - which is wonderfully expressed in her equally diverse teaching, research, and writing interests: medicine, literature, social justice, and health. Most recently on the faculty of the English Department of Hobart and William Smith Colleges in New York, she’ll soon begin a new assignment as Assistant Professor of Biomedical Humanities at Hiram College in Ohio.
Harriet Jacobs - c1890s
Jacobs’s Incidents appealed to Dr. Berry owing to her general interest in women’s first-person narratives.  “I wanted to investigate them deeply to see if broad statements about women’s powerlessness that are often made in nineteenth-century studies were always true,” she told me, adding, “I wanted to learn about the nitty-gritty details of a woman’s life with illness, or injury, and medical treatment, and as a result I became very interested in the details of medical men’s practices.”

While Jacobs’s narrative has been analyzed by literature and history scholars, Dr. Berry recognized that no one found “Dr. Flint’s” (the fictionalized name of Harriet Jacobs’s master, Dr. James Norcom) profession as a physician important enough to mention. “That’s when I decided to go to Raleigh [North Carolina] and read his papers for myself, to find out what kind of doctor he was, and how that affected Jacobs,” Dr. Berry said.

Indeed, Dr. Berry’s essay is well-researched, drawing on Incidents itself, the papers of Jacobs’s master, Dr. James Norcom, the papers of mid-19th century reformers such as Amy Post, and recent scholarship in gender, slavery, abolition  and other 19th-century reform movements, medicine, and other academic studies.


Dr James Norcom - NC Museum of History
She compared what she found in Norcom’s personal writings with what Jacobs said about him, and about living her life under his thumb. “The results of my research bring to light many biographical and historical facts about Norcom that have not been discussed in the scholarship, and that help illuminate Jacobs’s unique abolitionist strategy of tying anti-slavery with anti-medicine arguments to appeal to a specifically white, middle-class female audience that was already beginning to protest both slavery and medicine in the 1850s when Jacobs was writing,” Dr. Berry explained.

Dr. Berry notes that Harriet Jacobs lived periodically among female reformers of Rochester, NY, who had responsibility for their family’s health. For these women, heroic medical practices were under debate and critiqued as too harsh, too expensive, and ineffective.  As an example of the treatments they criticized, Dr. Berry shares some of Dr. Norcom’s notes on his treatment of a (white) female patient:

“The case of Miss E. Boushel came out of the hands of Dr. Warren who had been prescribing for her, more than a year. She was never bled, seldom purged & only once or twice cupped – morphia & blisters were the remedies principally relied on for her relief. I have found her to require large depletion, active purgatives & strong revulsive remedies.”

Dr. Berry notes in the article that this is much more than an example of the “heroic” medicine practiced in the era, writing, “Norcom aggressively asserted control not only over Boushel’s disease, but also over body as a site for professional competition.” [One of the most interesting storylines in Incidents is Norcom’s “treatment” of Harriet’s original mistress; her subsequent death resulted in her transfer to Norcom’s household.]

“She also drew very clear parallels between the sexual endangerment of free female patients by male doctors who were increasingly taking over gynecology and obstetrics from midwives and the systematic sexual exploitation of enslaved girls and women,” Dr. Berry told me. In doing so, Jacobs “helped her make her case that white women and women of color were equals in terms of bodily rights and vulnerability to men,” she added.

No wonder that the reformers were pressing instead for alternatives that they perceived as gentler and more effective, such as the water cure. Likewise, Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell sought to become a physician in no small part to the “moral degradation…from the practice of being treated by men in female complaints” suffered by free and enslaved females, alike.

Until now, my reading in this area had been limited to Todd Savitt’s Medicine and Slavery (1978).  “Savitt is classic and indispensable,” Dr. Berry told me, and happily added some other recommended reading for us: “Sharla M. Fett’s book - Working Cures: Healing, Health, and Power on Southern Slave Plantations (2002) - is an absolute pleasure; very accessible writing and very fascinating insight and evidence into the social and political convergence of African, indigenous, and European healing practices in numerous regions of the south.”

She also lists Harriet Washington’s Medical Apartheid (2006), Deborah McGregor’s From Midwives to Medicine (1998), and Marie Schwartz’s Birthing a Slave: Motherhood and Medicine in the Antebellum South (2006).

Dr. Berry acknowledges that hers is certainly not the last word on the intersection of Jacobs, Incidents, slavery, and medicine, and sees many opportunities for other avenues of research. “A larger outcome of my archival research was to suggest to me and I hope others the need for deep historical contextualization of enslaved peoples’ narratives in relation to medicine, healing, and the social power of the physician in the antebellum south,” she wrote me.

In her research she found account books and papers from other Edenton, North Carolina (Jacobs’s home until she escaped to the North) physicians, and believes that “much more ought to be investigated,” using those sources to see differences in the treatment of enslaved African-Americans and free whites in the antebellum South.

Web Exclusive: Link to full text of Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl:


Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Dr. John S. Sappington - Part III - A Paper Chase

One of many folders of the Dr. John Sappington Papers - State Historical Society of Missouri - Jim Schmidt
"Medicine sales very light; stock is old, labels become old and soiled." - Letter, January 3, 1852, J. D. Gregory to Miles Marmaduke.

Earlier this year I had the great pleasure and privilege of being part of a nonfiction author panel at the 2014 Montgomery County (TX) Book Festival.  One of the authors on the panel was the well-known True Crime writer, Kathryn Casey. She was really nice and interesting.  In answer to a question from the audience about how she does her research, she mentioned that she conducts dozens of interviews for each book - often more than a hundred.

When asked about my research techniques, I said - only half-tongue-in-cheek - that I also did dozens of interviews.  Then I explained that in my case, I didn't interrogate people...I interrogated their "papers" - letters, diaries, receipts, etc. - in order to get the best feeling I could for them, in their own words.

And so it was, as part of this continuing adventure (Part I and II here and here) to learn more about Dr. John Sappington of Arrow Rock, Missouri, I went to his collection of papers (and the Sappington Family Papers), which are right here in Columbia, Missouri, at the State Historical Society.

To - er - paraphrase Boromir from Lord of the Rings:

Created by Yours Truly Using the Meme Generator :-)

That's right! It takes some preparation to make the best use of your time and to help the (ever-helpful) archivists help you!

So, I revisited the great advice my good friend Guy Hasegawa gave me, which proved helpful in my last visit to an archival collection at the Galveston and Texas History Center (blog post about that visit here):

“First, do your homework, and be as specific as possible in stating your research interest,” he told me...His second suggestion is to allow plenty of time: “It takes time to locate microfilm or have paper records retrieved,” he said. He also noted that Civil War documents are generally handwritten and are difficult to read quickly. In short, he concludes: “Don’t fool yourself into thinking that any sizable project can be done in one day.”

So, first I did my homework!

The SHS-Columbia has some excellent online manuscript finding aids for the Dr. Sappington Papers (here) and the Sappington Family Papers (here), which helped with making a list before I arrived of items I wanted to see. Also, Lynn Morrow's excellent and scholarly article, “Dr. John Sappington: Southern Patriarch in the New West.” Missouri Historical Review, v. 90, no. 1 (October 1995), pp. 38-60 (here) - included references to a lot of material that would be interesting, so I "mined" his footnotes and made a list of papers I knew I'd want to see.

Second, I limited the amount of material I would ask for, especially since the Saturday hours at the SHS are more limited than weekdays. I identified a few folders I was interested in.  There was indeed more that I would have looked at (and will!)...the time spent in reading and transcribing sometimes doesn't allow for seeing everything, so be sure and prioritize!

It's also important to know the policies and procedures of an archive before you visit as to regulations for what paper, writing utensils, computers, photography, etc. are or are not allowed. The SHS policies are here.

The staff at the SHS-Columbia were VERY helpful and courteous...I look forward to visiting again!

In looking at the Sappington Papers I got a wonderful glimpse into the day-to-day mechanics of his patent medicine enterprise:

Letters from entrepreneurial spirits of all kinds seeking permission to have an exclusive Sappington's Anti-Fever Pills agency.

Handwritten testimonials from satisfied users, some of whom also sought an agency

Letters from agents in the field complaining about the blight of all successful patent medicine proprietors: counterfeit medicine.

Correspondence on the quinine (the principal active ingredient in his pills) market.

Reports that his medicine was not doing as well as the medicines of local proprietors

One of many folders of the Dr. John Sappington Papers - State Historical Society of Missouri - Jim Schmidt

Letters from agents urging Dr. Sappington to advertise that his pills did not contain mineral ingredients

Letters about collection efforts - Sappington was vigilant in collections - more than one set of papers detailed his procurement of slaves in settlement of a debt.

And - much interesting correspondence about the publication and distribution of his book, Sappington on Fevers, discussed in the previous post

It was a great trip and I look forward to returning! Many thanks to the helpful folks at the SHS-Columbia! And: please USE and SUPPORT your local archives...often, if people aren't using them, they'll have a harder time justifying the necessary expense of professional archivists and proper storage and conservation.

Saturday, June 14, 2014

Dr. John S. Sappington - Part II - "Sappington on Fevers"

Jim Schmidt Collection
"As I have long since departed from the theory and practice in which I was principally taught, and am now engaged in writing against them, it may be proper that I should give my reasons to the public for doing so."  — Dr. John Sappington, Theory and Treatment of Fevers (1844)

In Part I of this series (here), I introduced Dr. John Sappington of Arrow Rock, Missouri, and his "Anti-Fever Pills," a popular remedy in the 1830s and 40s.

In this post, I'll describe another of Sappington's accomplishments: his publication, in 1844, of Theory and Treatment of Fevers, also known as Sappington on Fevers.

The book is important on several counts:

It is one of the earliest books published west of the Mississippi and the first medical book printed in Missouri (some say it was the first medical book published west of the Mississippi)

In the book, he criticizes what he called the "pukes and purgatives" practice of so-called "heroic medicine," which included the heavy use of calomel and bloodletting.

He also revealed the recipe of his pills (much to the consternation of family members who grew rich off agencies and collections):

Jim Schmidt Collection
"Although the author has vended pills to a large amount, and realized considerable sums of money by his sales, the people have also saved a great many dollars by using them; been relieved of much pain and suffering, and very many lives have no doubt been saved and prolonged. The author considers himself driven to this alternative, more from motives of benevolence than from those of self-interest." (p. 79)

 “[The pills] were simply composed of one grain quinine each, three-fourths of a grain of liquorice, and one-fourth grain of myrrh, to which was added just so much of the oil of sassafras as would give to them an agreeable odor” (p. 79)

Sappington printed about 25,000 copies of the book and took advantage of his network of agents to sell them.  He also published notices in papers such as this:


Boon's Lick Times (MO) - October 19, 1844

Unfortunately for Sappington the book did not achieve great sales...originally priced at $2.00, plummeted to twenty cents a few years later, and finally for five cents in 1854.

A link to the full text of the book is provided below via  I obtained a great softcover reprint of the book via the Friends of Arrow Rock for the bargain price of $5.00.  Still, curious to see if an actual 1844 copy might be available, I scoured one of my favorite rare book sites: ABEBooks and was fortunate to find a copy for a very affordable price and happily in great condition (for being 170 years old!): good, if worn, binding, and some foxing on the pages, but otherwise a really nice addition to my personal library...other extant copies  can still be found, with price generally depending on condition.


Thursday, June 12, 2014

Dr. John S. Sappington - Part I - Sappington's Anti-Fever Pills

"He prescribed blue pills, oil and other nauseating doses, and though they relieved me some, the chief cure was "Dctr. Sappington's Pills," which I must ever eulogize as a medicine of fine qualities. One box of them administered by mi alma cured me or at least broke the fever. After great prostration of body I am again creeping out." - Diary, Susan Shelby Magoffin, 1846-47

A couple weekends ago I had the great pleasure of visiting the Arrow Rock State Historic Site in Missouri. Having never been there before - and with two or three specific destinations in mind - I had little idea of what the site had to offer.

What a wonderful place it is! I can't wait to go back and enjoy more! The entire locale of Arrow Rock (Est. 1829) is on the National Register of Historic Places, with about 1/3 privately owned, 1/3 owned by the state, and another 1/3 owned by an active preservation organization, The Friends of Arrow Rock.

A summary of the site can be found on the official state parks page:

Stroll through the history of a once-bustling river town that’s now the serene village of Arrow Rock.  You’ll walk streets lined with the architecture of the historic “Boone’s Lick Country.” At Arrow Rock State Historic Site, you may wander into the historic Old Tavern, which dates back to 1834 and provides a dining experience in a period setting or see displays of old-time wares at the Huston Store. You can learn about it all through exhibits in the visitor center. The historic site is part of the larger Village of Arrow Rock, which features quaint stores and a bevy of antique shops.

One destination I did have is dedicated to one of Arrow Rock's foremost citizens: Dr. John S. Sappington (1776-1856)

Sappington is of great interest to me for several reasons:
  •  He was the force behind an early American proprietary/patent medicine: Sappington's Anti-Fever Pills, a medicine popular in the Midwest and South in the 1830s-40s
  • He was the author of the first medical treatise published west of the Mississippi
  • His (and his family's) papers are located at the state historical society branch here in Columbia
  • His extended family had powerful political influence in the mid-19th century (two of his sons-in-law were Missouri governors)

So, in this series of blog posts, I'll share some of what I've seen and learned about this man, his business, and his family.

You can learn about Dr. John S. Sappington by visiting the  "Historic Missourians" website of the State Historical Society of Missouri.

Arrow Rock is the home of the Dr. John Sappington Museum, which I happily visited to learn more about his Anti-Fever Pills.

Logansport (IN) Telegraph July 27, 1839
The history of the pills is briefly presented in his online biography:

Financially successful, Sappington continued to practice medicine. He began to experiment with quinine, a substance derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, a species native to South America. Sappington began importing cinchona bark as early as 1820, but it was only years later that he discovered its most promising medicinal use as a preventative against malarial fever. Dr. Sappington's Anti-Fever Pills.

Malaria, an infectious disease passed from mosquitoes to humans, ravaged much of early America. People who lived near bodies of water or in areas of swampy, poorly drained land were among those most likely to contract the disease. Once infected, an individual suffered from high fever, chills, vomiting, and joint pain. Missourians who lived along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers were often susceptible to malaria.

In 1832, using quinine taken from cinchona bark, Sappington developed a pill to cure a variety of fevers, such as scarlet fever, yellow fever, and influenza. He sold “Dr. Sappington's Anti-Fever Pills” across Missouri. Demand became so great that within three years Dr. Sappington founded a new company known as Sappington and Sons to sell his anti-fever pills nationwide. The anti-fever pills were popular in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.
[Note: Unfortunately, many enthusiastic biographers declare that Sappington "discovered" cinchona bark (and quinine's) efficicay in treating malaria.In fact it had long been used by natives in Peru, from where the bark was imported to the United States, and had appeared in some European medicines in the mid-1600s.]

A better picture of Sappington and his pills can be found in these articles:

T. Findley, "Sappington's anti-fever pills and the Westward migration," Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 1968; 79: 34–44. (Full text as PDF here)

Morrow, Lynn. “Dr. John Sappington: Southern Patriarch in the New West.” Missouri Historical Review, v. 90, no. 1 (October 1995), pp. 38-60. (here)

The next parts of this blog post will feature:

Part II - Sappington's 1844 medical treatise: "The Theory and Treatment of Fevers"
Part III - The interesting Sappington Papers at the State Historical Society of Missouri
Part IV - The Sappington Family Cemetery State Historic Site - final resting place of Dr. John S. Sappington and two Missouri governors: both of them his sons-in-law
Part V- The Sappington Negro Cemetery - Dr. John S. Sappington was a slaveholder, and slavery is an important aspect of Arrow Rock's history

The Sappington Museum is small but tells the story very ably and has some terrific artifacts on display for persons interested in 19th-century medicine, as seen my photos below.

Sappington began his investigations with cinchona bark but then bought hundreds - if not thousands - of pounds of purified quinine from wholesale druggists in Philadelphia

Medical Text, c. 1770s, belonged to Sappington’s father, also a physician

Reproduction of a typical Sappington's Pills Broadside

Bark of the Cinchona Tree

Ledger Book for Sale of the Pills in Tennessee and Alabama, 1849-50

Friday, June 6, 2014

TULSA WORLD - June 6, 1944

I love old newspapers.  The look, the feel, the news - of course - the ads, the unexpected finds.

Newspapers published on a particularly historic day are all the more interesting - the older the event, there are often more innaccuracies in the first stories, and if you have a few days worth of the same paper, you can see how the story develops.

Today is the 70th anniversary of D-Day, June 6, 1944.

I happily share some images from a June 6, 1944 (Final Evening Edition) issue of the Tulsa World in my collection. Bold Headlines. Breaking News. Statemets from the President. Cheap Suits. Rationed Cigarettes.

Enjoy.  Remember.

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Courage, Sacrifice, Humanity, Equality - the Soldiers' Memorial in Jefferson City, MO

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt
"I think about 25 colored men of this regiment & Capt Mc, Lt. Anderson, Charlie Bonsall & myself will settle together in Missouri, put up a mill & schoolhouse." - Letter - Lt. Richard Baxter Foster, 62nd USCT, to his wife, March 30, 1865

As a follow up to my previous post (here) about Jefferson City National Cemetery, I happily offer another post about a wonderful place to visit in Missouri's Capital City: The Soldiers' Memorial, at Lincoln University, in honor of the men who served in the 62nd and 65th United States Colored Infantry.

Indeed, the memorial is only blocks away from the cemetery and is a natural for a combined visit!

The regiments and the university are intimately connected.  According to the official website of Lincoln University:
Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt
Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

At the close of the Civil War, soldiers and officers of the 62nd United States Colored Infantry, stationed at Fort McIntosh, Texas, but composed primarily of Missourians, took steps to establish an educational institution in Jefferson City, Missouri, which they named Lincoln Institute. The following stipulations were set for the school:

1.  The institution shall be designed for the special benefit of the freed African-Americans;
2.  It shall be located in the state of Missouri;
3.  Its fundamental idea shall be to combine study and labor.

Members of the 62nd Colored Infantry contributed $5,000; this was supplemented by approximately $1,400, given by the 65th Colored Infantry. On January 14, 1866, Lincoln Institute was formally established under an organization committee. By June of the same year, it incorporated and the committee became a Board of Trustees. Richard Baxter Foster, a former first lieutenant in the 62nd Infantry, was named first principal of Lincoln Institute. On September 17, 1866, the school opened its doors to the first class in an old frame building in Jefferson City.

There is a plethora of great material on the regiments and the monument on the web...links to a few are provided below:

1) The "Jubilo! The Emancipation Century" blog has an excellent entry on the soldiers, university and monument here
2) Lincoln University holds a collection of Richard Baxter Foster's wartime letters which can be accessed here.
3) A short, but excellent, article, written for the NY Times Diunion blog, on the legacy of the 62nd USCT here (includes a short, but excellent, reading list at the end)
4) The sculptor - Ed Dwight - is a remarkable man: from America’s First African American Astronaut Candidate to Fine Artist, you can learn more about him here.

As you'll see below, the monument has several Mr. Dwight's words:

"This memorial honors their foresight and vision, featuring Two Soldiers and Capt. Foster, their white commander atop the pedestal, plus a soldier to the rear assisting other soldiers in their climb to academic excellence. This is enhanced by a
bas relief group of soldiers awaiting matriculation and two additional soldiers in full garb trudging across the campus heading to their destiny."

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt
Add this monument to your must-see list! Enjoy the photos!

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Soldiers' Memorial - Lincoln University - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Friday, May 23, 2014

Jefferson City (MO) National Cemetery

Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt
In commemoration of Memorial Day 2014, I happily share photos from my recent visit to Jefferson City (Missouri) National Cemetery.

Entrance to Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt
There are 147 national cemeteries in the United States, maintained by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of the Army, or  the National Park Service (NPS) maintains 14 cemeteries associated with historic sites and battlefields. Additionally the American Battle Monuments Commission maintains 24 American military cemeteries overseas.

It's always a good time to visit one of the cemeteries, but especially on Memorial Day.  My visit to the Jefferson City National Cemetery added to the list that I've been privileged to visit:

Cold Harbor (VA) National Cemetery
Vicksburg (MS) National Cemetery
Fredericksburg (VA) National Cemetery
Springfield (MO) National Cemetery - (blog posts here, here, here)
Jefferson Barracks (MO) National Cemetery
Houston (TX) National Cemetery
Jefferson City (MO) National Cemetery

You can learn more about particulars of the Jefferson City National Cemetery at the official VA and NPS websites.  Extracts from the NPS website appear below with some of my photographs.

Located a quarter-mile southeast of the state capitol building, the Jefferson City National Cemetery was [officially] established in 1867 as a burial place for Union soldiers who died in the area.  The cemetery features a rectangular layout that has changed little since the 1860s.  Union troop burials at the cemetery occurred as early as 1861, long before its official establishment as a national cemetery in 1867.  The grounds are surrounded by an ashlar stone wall, which replaced the original wooden fence in 1871. - NPS
Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt
Just inside the main gate is the superintendent’s lodge, a one-and-one-half story brick building of the Second Empire style. The lodge’s design follows the standard plan issued by U.S. Army Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs.  The lodge is one of the 17 remaining Second Empire-style Meigs lodges found at Civil War-era national cemeteries.  Built in 1870, the L-shaped building was constructed of ashlar stone and features stone quoins on the corner of the building. Typical of Second Empire architecture, the lodge is topped by a Mansard roof covered in hexagonal slate tiles of varying colors. In 1931, a one-story kitchen addition was built at the rear of the lodge. - NPS

1870s Superintendent's Lodge- Photo by Jim Schmidt

1870s Superintendent's Lodge- Photo by Jim Schmidt

Between burial sections 7 and 9, a monument dedicated to the 108 members of the Missouri Volunteer Infantry killed in 1864 in an unsuccessful Union attack in Centralia, Missouri was constructed.  Originally, 78 of the dead were buried in a trench grave in Centralia. In 1873, their remains were reinterred at Jefferson City National Cemetery. The monument, a limestone obelisk, bears the name of each of the 108 volunteers killed, including their commander Major A.V.E. Johnson. - NPS

[Note: The 150th anniversary of the Centralia Massacre is this September; stay tuned to this blog for more on this tragic, but interesting, event]
Centralia Massacre Monument - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Centralia Massacre Monument - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Centralia Massacre Monument - Photo by Jim Schmidt
Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt

Jefferson City National Cemetery - Photo by Jim Schmidt